In 1947 the United Provinces (named during British Rule) became one of the administrative units of the newly independent Dominion of India. Two years later the autonomous states of Tehri-Garhwal and Rampur, both within its borders, were incorporated into the United Provinces. With the adoption of a new Indian constitution in 1950, the United Provinces was renamed Uttar Pradesh and became a constituent state of the new Indian Union. Since independence, the state has maintained a dominant role within India. It has given the country several prime ministers, including Jawaharlal Nehru and his daughter, Indira Gandhi, as well as prominent leaders of national opposition (minority) parties, such as Acharya Narendra Dev, one of the founders of the Praja Socialist Party, and Atal Behari Vajpayee of the Bharatiya Jan Sangh and Bharatiya Janata Party. State politics, however, have tended to be fractious, and seldom has any chief minister completed a five-year term.
About Uttar Pradesh
U.P. the land of Taj Mahal, is India's largest state, in terms of population. With 160 million people, it compares with the seventh largest country in the world today, Uttar Pradesh does not only the mystique of orient, but also the vibrant, cosmopolitan and the modern face of India.
On Jan. 26, 1950, when India became a republic, the state was given its present name, Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh extends over 113,673 square miles (294,411 square kilometers), about 9 percent of the total area of the country. Lucknow is the capital of the India's most populous state. Uttar Pradesh is located in the north-central part of the country. It is bordered by Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China in the north; the states of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan and the union territory of Delhi in the west; the state of Madhya Pradesh in the south; and the state of Bihar in the east.
With a disciplined, productive and inexpensive manpower, it has attracted some of the largest international companies to set-up their business in the state. Thus U.P. has Coca-Cola ,Pepsi, Glaxo, Daewoo, Honda, Piaggio, and innumerable others doing thriving business. U.P. today, is the address of every one who matters in the industry in India.
Endowed with the fertile land, salubrious-climate and mighty- river systems, it has long been, the granary of India. It produces 19% of India's food grains, 22% of India's vegetables and 38% of nation's potatoes. It has the largest livestock in the country and its milk production is also the highest. It is the largest producer of sugarcane and is also first in the manufacture of the sugar. The carpets & brassware of U.P. are well known internationally. They symbolize the immense strength of the traditionally industries of the state. The perfumes of Kannauj and the Silk & Brocade industry of Varanasi reflect the grandeur of the exotic east.
In sheer magnitude Uttar Pradesh is half the size of France, thrice that of Portugal, and four times of Ireland. Seven Switzerland and ten Belgium's could easily fit in this mammoth state. A little bigger than England, Uttar Pradesh has one out of every 36 persons in the World living here. Uttar Pradesh represents the heart of India. For the same reason it has been referred to as the Madhya Desh (Central Province) in mythological descriptions. This is the land where Lord Rama and Krishna, the most revered Indian Gods, were born. Uttar Pradesh also provided the setting to the supreme religious epics like the Ramayana and Mahabharata. This state has gifted to the world the incredible Taj Mahal. Mythology and monuments constitute just a small part of the story of Uttar Pradesh. The state has been playing a critical and at times decisive role in India's perplexing politics. But for three, all the Prime Ministers, which India has so far seen, come from this part of the country. Uttar Pradesh has everything you can ever ask for except maybe a seashore.
The state of Uttar Pradesh has been cut and has given birth to a new state of Uttranchal. State area is now reduced to 2,36,286 sq. kms. The new map is shown in the figure.